1. Paul, Barnabas, and Titus, trip to Jerusalem, to give a love gift and have a private meeting with leaders on the jewish openness of the gentile mission.
2. Jewdisers also called the "circumcision party" Infiltrate the Antioch church and after Paul leaves for Jerusalem. They lay low and do recognizance seeing to spy out the freedom Paul and his gang have in Christ.(Gal 2:4-5)
3. Private meeting with Peter, James, half-brother of Jesus , and John.
4. While still in Jerusalem the persecution under Agrippa begins James, brother of John dies.
5. Peter imprisoned. Church prayed (including Paul, Barnabas, and Titus). Peter miraculously set free, ducks out of town, maybe made his way to Antioch. (After having spoken with Paul, Antioch would have been on his radar).
6. Peter in Antioch hangs with gentile and Jewish believers, some men come from Jerusalem and individuals who say they are from James, They encourage believers to follow the Law and be Jewish like Jesus. The Jewdisers see this as an opportunity to gain a foot hold and so they grandstand the James group's preferences into their theological points. Peter decided to go with the flow, perhaps not realizing that his example would make the Gentile Christians feel like second-class citizens in the church. He thought he was just giving up BBQ and followed Jewish dietary laws (Gal 2:12–14), maybe holidays and festivals (Gal 4:10) but he was making room for so much more.
7. Paul, Barnabas, and Titus, travel back to Antioch, not long after arriving Paul has his confrontation with Peter. Peter repents and is restored. Peter returned to Jerusalem stronger in his convictions.
The Cast of Characters in the story and ideological background of the justification controversy.
A. Pharisaic Judaism (saved by law) live law (biblical customs and behavior interrupted by Pharisaic Judaism) in covenant with God (by circumcision) and your acceptable before God
1. Taught that man must keep the law of Moses for salvation.
i. Casusitic (technical legal/ethical term) understanding of sin
ii. They emphasized sinful deeds, rather than sinfulness
iii. Parallel with Islam
iv. circumcision was not a sign of the covenant but the way into covenant with God.
2. Much of the Judaizers, theological reflection flows from this camp.
B. Judaizers (Jesus + law) accept Jesus and live law (biblical customs and behavior interrupted by Hellenistic Judaism) in covenant with God (by circumcision) and your acceptable before God.
1. The Judaizers, false brothers and circumcision group can be considered the same group (ideologically).
2. They are Jewish Christians, likely Pharisees according to Acts 15, who, with good intentions, sought to supplement Paul’s gospel by requiring that the basics of the Law be followed: circumcision and food laws. They believe that Jesus is the Messiah, but they do not believe that salvation is by grace alone, through faith alone.
i. They were not Jewish because they believed in Jesus.
ii. They were not Christian because they believe in the need for the law and circumcision to be justified.
3. Galatians 6:12-13 gives us their motives. They are people that think by compelling Gentiles to be circumcised they might avoid persecution by being seen as a sect of judaism thus avoiding Roman/political persecution and by getting Gentiles to be circumcised they impress Jewish leaders.
C. Jewish Christians
1. They believe in Jesus and understand the gospel but live a culture of a law keeping community.
2. The Jewish heritage and way of life guides every aspect of their existence from the way they eat to the holidays they celebrate yet they fully trust in Christ sufficiency for salvation.
3. They tend to seem a bit ethnocentric or just racist yet it is their perspective on purity that is behind their actions not hatred of an ethnic group for the most part.
D. Peter and Barnabas (issue of conviction and conduct)
1. Peter believed that people are saved by grace alone but had a hard time living it out. Peter and Paul agreed but Peter did not realize his conduct was opposite to what the Gospel teaches.
2. His conviction(belief) was true but his conduct was not not in line with belief. He was play acting - "playing a part" - thus the charge of hypocrisy.
3. See Peter’s problem of conduct during table fellowship with Gentiles in Gal. 2:11-16.
E. Paul (in Galatians)
1. Saved by grace alone, through faith, extended to Jew or Gentile, fellowship and live out the Gospel together
a. He argues against Judaizers.
b. He argues against Peter more as an example (but not his main concern.)
c. He argues against Pharisaic Judaism. (Again, not his main concern)
F. Gentile believers (See Paul)
J. Dawson Jarrell